Students

Students wearing mortarboards

The University of Ottawa strongly encourages students to respect the principles of copyright and intellectual property in their educational and other university activities. As a student, you are usually entitled to the copyright and related interests for works you create. Students who copy or communicate copyright-protected works should either obtain the permission of the copyright owner or be satisfied that copying or communicating the works falls within one of the exceptions in the Copyright Act. The University is not liable for any infringing copies made or communicated by students including such copies made or communicated using copiers or scanners made available by the University.

You should make every effort to rely on the University’s Fair dealing guidelines, on materials which do not require a permission – see Using electronic resources and Alternatives to copyright, or on the various exceptions that could apply to you - see Exceptions to copyright

Writing a thesis

A thesis

If there is copyright-protected material in your master’s thesis or doctoral dissertation, it is your responsibility to ensure that it either complies with Canadian Copyright Law, or that documented permission has been obtained to use the copyright-protected material. Simply follow the guidelines outlined by Library and Archives Canada. The University cannot offer you legal advice as to whether or not copyright permission is required.

Under fair dealing, the concept of research does not generally extend to using copyright-protected material in your thesis. There exists a fair dealing exception “for the purpose of criticism or review” which, if used, may permit use of the materials in your thesis. However, this requires that the criticism or review of the materials be relatively explicit. The materials must be specifically identified and analysed – if you simply are using the copyright-protected material as an example or to illustrate a point, you should not rely on the fair dealing provisions for criticism or review. As well, under this exception you must mention the source of the materials and, if given in the source, the author (unless the author is anonymous or has agreed or directed that they not be named). Furthermore, you should also make sure to take into account both copyright and plagiarism when writing your thesis or dissertation, as these are two similar but different concepts - See our Overview section for more information.

Unable to get permission?
A handshake being crossed out and a thesis

When your use of copyright-protected material is not covered under "fair dealing" and you are unable to obtain permission, or there is an unreasonable charge for obtaining permission, you can remove the copyright-protected material and leave a blank space.

Note: your thesis must be as complete as possible. Removal of material is only acceptable if you are denied permission, if an unreasonable fee will be charged for use of the material, or if you receive no response from the copyright holder after making repeated and timely efforts at contacting them.

This space must contain the following:

  1. A statement that the material has been removed because of copyright restrictions
  2. A description of the material and the information it contained
  3. A full citation of the original source of the material

Example: “Figure 3 has been removed due to copyright restrictions. It was a diagram of the apparatus used in performing the experiment, showing the changes made by the investigating team. Original source: Wu, G. and Thompson, J.R. (2008) Effect of Ketone Bodies on Dairy Cattle. Biochem J. 255:139-144.”

This short summary of the material is important and provides the reader with a chance to follow your argument without looking up the original source. However, if possible, including a link to an online source is still advisable.

Article-based theses

An article-based thesis is a compilation of research articles that have been published or prepared for publication. In cases where one or more of the articles have been published, you must verify the copyright or licence conditions of the publisher before including the article(s) in the final version of your thesis.

While some publishers may allow you to include the published version of the article in your thesis, the majority of publishers only allow the use of a post-print version of the article. The post-print version is the final draft version that has been peer-reviewed but not yet formatted by the publisher. You may use SHERPA/RoMEO to verify your journal’s policy on which version of the article you are permitted to include in your thesis.

SHERPA/RoMEO summarizes copyright transfer agreements and self-archiving provisions for most academic journals. It is always recommended that you consult SHERPA/RoMEO and the journal’s copyright policies and conditions before submitting the final version of your thesis. Some journals may require that an embargo be placed on the public version; to apply for one, see How do I request an embargo?

While SHERPA/RoMeo is generally complete, it does not include all publishers. If your journal is not in SHERPA/RoMEO, you should verify terms and conditions on the journal’s website or contact the publisher directly.


Contains materials adapted from Copyright at UBC - Theses and Dissertations by the University of British Columbia - licenced under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence.

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